A proof-of-concept study suggests that the combination of anti-inflammatory medication and chemotherapy drugs can boost immune response to suppress bladder tumor growth. Led by Cedars-Sinai Cancer investigators, the study focused on tackling the immune-dampening effect of chemotherapy drugs. Research uncovered the underlying mechanism that results in chemotherapy treatment failure, the release of prostaglandin E2. This bioactive lipid is associated with inflammation and inhibits dendritic maturation. A preceding factor for cells to fight cancer. In addition, early investigation revealed potential in combining celecoxib, an anti-inflammatory medication, and chemotherapy drugs as improved immune response was observed in treated mice models. Researchers look to test the efficacy of the potential treatment in human trials for bladder cancer patients.