Developed by City of Hope researchers, an investigational COVID-19 vaccine was seen to produce both antibody and T cell response against the virus in clinical trials. The vaccine, COH04S1, differs from previous vaccines developed to target COVID-19. COH04S1 targets two different proteins of the virus, the spike and nucleocapsid proteins. This combination of antigens into one vaccine grants substantial T cell immunity. Even as new mutations arise in the virus’ spike protein, antigens of the nucleocapsid would protect individuals from COVID-19. The vaccine is currently undergoing phase 2 clinical trials, being evaluated for both efficacy for immunocompromised cancer patients and as a Phase 2 vaccine booster.